Conflict of Interest Statement

For Authors:

All manuscripts that are submitted to the journal must be accompanied by a conflict of interest

disclosure statement or a declaration by the authors that they do not have any conflicts of interest

to declare.

To facilitate this policy, all authors must privately disclose ‘ALL their potential conflicts of interest’ to the

editors of the journal at the time of submission. These include all financial and non-financial interests

and relationships (more explanation later in the text), direct employment with a private

sector entity (full-time or part-time), and service on private sector and non-profit boards and

advisory panels, whether paid or unpaid. Authors should also disclose any conflict of interest that may

have influenced either the conduct or the presentation of the research to the editors, including but not

limited to close relationships with those who might be helped or hurt by the publication, academic

interests and rivalries, and any personal, religious or political convictions relevant to the topic at hand.


In the article, the authors must include a draft statement that discloses all relevant conflicts of interest

and affiliations. The relevance of financial conflicts of interest with private firms is defined as a

relationship of any value with a firm that has a stake in the subject of the manuscript or its competitors.

Relevance for patents is defined as any invention or pending invention connected in any way to the

subject. As relevance is often in the eye of the beholder, one must err on the side of full disclosure when

drafting the disclosure statement. Editors will check a draft against the private financial disclosure

statement and initiate discussions toward possible adjustments, if necessary.

What to report: Any financial relationship from the past three years (dating from the month of

submission) should be disclosed. These potential conflicts of interest include:

-          Direct employment, either full-time or part-time

-          Grants and research funding (but not grants to your institution or others within your institution,

on which you have not worked). These include substantial grants from trade associations and

non-profit (50% or more) or funded by private sector firms

-          Consultancies

-          Travel grants, speaking fees, writing fees, and other honoraria

-          Paid expert testimony for one side in an adversarial proceeding (this does not include testimony

as a factual witness in a civil or criminal case)

-          Patents granted and pending applications, irrespective of whether they are generating royalties or not

-          Stock ownership and investment in the related ‘sector’ funds or stock options, including those of

immediate family members, but excluding diversified mutual funds and investment trusts

Membership of private sector, scientific or other advisory Boards, whether paid or unpaid.

In addition, any current negotiations regarding future employment or current job offers, either full- or

part-time, must be disclosed.

In disclosing these financial arrangements to the editors, the authors can include dollar amounts, albeit

they will not be printed in the journal. Editors may choose to exclude this information from the

publication, but in no case should an editor or author consider an arrangement irrelevant based on its

size alone.

Non-Financial Conflicts of Interest:


Authors may have strong views about the article being submitted for publication. The authors must

consider disclosing these views and the editors may choose to print any affiliations or expressions from

these views that may be relevant. These may be personal, political or intellectual, and may include any

expression of strongly held views relevant to the subject of submission. Such disclosures may be original

or they may be references to opinions previously expressed in books or monographs, opposite editorials

(op-eds) or public comments, or to some prior sworn testimony or lobbying of legislators or legislative

bodies. Disclosable non-financial conflicts of interest will also include membership or affiliation to

non-governmental organizations that have an interest in the submission.

How do I Make a Declaration?


Please include a ‘Conflict of Interest’ declaration at the end of your manuscript, following any

acknowledgments and prior to the references, under the heading ‘Conflict of Interest Statement’.

If there is none, the following sentence should be written under this heading:

“The author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest”.