Publication Ethics and Publication Malpractice Statement

This publication ethics and publication malpractice statement is mainly based on the Code of Conduct

and Best-Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors (Committee on Publication Ethics, 2011).


Editors' responsibilities

Publication decisions

The editor is responsible for deciding which of the papers submitted to the journal will be published.

The editor will evaluate manuscripts without regard to the authors' race, gender, sexual orientation,

religious belief, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy. The decision will be based on the

paper’s importance, originality and clarity, and the study’s validity and its relevance to the journal's

scope. Current legal requirements regarding libel, copyright infringement, and plagiarism should also

be considered.



The editor and any editorial staff must not disclose any information about a submitted manuscript to

anyone other than the corresponding author, reviewers, potential reviewers, other editorial advisers,

and the publisher, as appropriate.


Disclosure and conflicts of interest

Unpublished materials disclosed in a submitted paper will not be used by the editor or the members

of the editorial board for their own research purposes without the author's explicit written consent.


Reviewers' responsibilities

Contribution to editorial decisions

The peer-reviewing process assists the editor and the editorial board in making editorial decisions

and may also serve the author in improving the paper.



Any selected referee who feels unqualified to review the research reported in a manuscript or knows

that its prompt review will be impossible should notify the editor and withdraw from the review




Any manuscripts received for review must be treated as confidential documents. They must not be

disclosed to or discussed with others except as authorized by the editor.


Standards of objectivity

Reviews should be conducted objectively. Personal criticism of the author is inappropriate. Referees

should express their views clearly with supporting arguments.


Acknowledgment of sources

Reviewers should identify cases in which relevant published work referred to in the paper has not

been cited in the reference section. They should point out whether observations or arguments

derived from other publications are accompanied by the respective source. Reviewers will notify the

editor of any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any

other published paper of which they have personal knowledge.


Disclosure and conflict of interest

Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used

for personal advantage. Reviewers should not consider manuscripts in which they have conflicts of

interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of

the authors, companies, or institutions associated with the papers.


Authors' duties

Reporting standards

Authors of original research reports should present an accurate account of the work performed as

well as an objective discussion of its significance. Underlying data should be represented accurately

in the paper. A paper should contain sufficient detail and references to permit others to replicate the

work. Fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements constitute unethical behavior and are



Data access and retention

Authors could be asked to provide the raw data of their study together with the paper for editorial

review and should be prepared to make the data publicly available if practicable. In any event,

authors should ensure accessibility of such data to other competent professionals for at least ten

years after publication (preferably via an institutional or subject-based data repository or other data

center), provided that the confidentiality of the participants can be protected and legal rights

concerning proprietary data do not preclude their release.


Originality, plagiarism and acknowledgment of sources

Authors will submit only entirely original works, and will appropriately cite or quote the work and/or

words of others. Publications that have been influential in determining the nature of the reported

work should also be cited.


Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication

In general, papers describing essentially the same research should not be published in more than one

journal. Submitting the same paper to more than one journal constitutes unethical publishing

behavior and is unacceptable.

Manuscripts which have been published as copyrighted material elsewhere cannot be submitted. In

addition, manuscripts under review by the journal should not be resubmitted to copyrighted

publications. However, by submitting a manuscript, the author(s) retain the rights to the published

material. In case of publication they permit the use of their work under a CC BY-NC license, which allows others to copy, distribute and transmit

the work as well as to adapt the work, but not to make commercial use of it.


Authorship of the paper

Authorship should be limited to those who have made a significant contribution to the conception,

design, execution, or interpretation of the reported study. All those who have made significant

contributions should be listed as co-authors.

The corresponding author ensures that all contributing co-authors and no uninvolved persons are

included in the author list. The corresponding author will also verify that all co-authors have

approved the final version of the paper and have agreed to its submission for publication.


Disclosure and conflicts of interest

All authors should include a statement disclosing any financial or other substantive conflicts of

interest that may be construed to influence the results or interpretation of their manuscript. All

sources of financial support for the project should be disclosed.

Fundamental errors in published works

When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her own published work, it is the

author’s obligation to promptly notify the journal editor or publisher and to cooperate with the

editor to retract or correct the paper in form of an erratum.



- Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). (2011, March 7). Code of Conduct and Best-Practice

Guidelines for Journal Editors. Retrieved from


- Elsevier article withdrawal policies. Retrieved from